棋牌类游戏下载

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                      1. 先进制造业微信公众平台 先进制造业全媒体

                        服务型制造内涵与发展动因探析

                        2018-05-31   来源:来源:《社科院工业经济研究所》   评论:0
                        摘要:服务型制造是制造业的发展方向,近年来兴起的新一轮科技革命和产业变革进一步推动了制造业服务化的进程。针对目前对服务型制造较为混乱的认识,基于既有的研究,提出服务型制造的内涵是制造企业面向用户提供基于自家产品的增值服务。
                        <div class="rich_media_area_primary" id="page-content" style="margin: 0px; padding: 32px 16px 12px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, " helvetica="" neue",="" "pingfang="" sc",="" "hiragino="" sans="" gb",="" "microsoft="" yahei="" ui",="" yahei",="" arial,="" sans-serif;="" font-size:="" 16px;="" font-variant-numeric:="" normal;="" font-variant-east-asian:="" letter-spacing:="" 0.544px;="" line-height:="" 25.6px;="" widows:="" 1;"="">

                        服务型制造内涵与发展动因探析

                         

                         

                        ZHAIYAO

                         

                        服务型制造是制造业的发展方向,近年来兴起的新一轮科技革命和产业变革进一步推动了制造业服务化的进程。针对目前对服务型制造较为混乱的认识,基于既有的研究,提出服务型制造的内涵是制造企业面向用户提供基于自家产品的增值服务。通过放松约束条件,进一步划分了服务型制造外延的核心层与扩展层、狭义的服务型制造与广义的服务型制造。服务型制造具有普遍性和模式多样性。产品复杂性增加、消费升级、新一代信息技术发展、制造业对成长的追求是服务型制造发展的主要动因,同时服务型制造在不同行业间存在显著的差异。服务型制造在竞争优势的重塑、产业的绿色发展、全要素生产率的提升、应对贸易摩擦等方面都具有重要意义。
                        棋牌类游戏下载  

                         

                        GUANJIANCI

                         

                        FUWUXINGZHIZAO;FUWUHUA;CHANPINFUWUXITONG

                         

                        JIJINXIANGMU

                         

                        YANJIUCHANSHIDANGDESHIJIUDAJINGSHENGUOJIASHEKEJIJINZHUANXIANGLIXIANGKETI“TUIDONGXINYIDAIXINXIJISHUYUZHIZAOYESHENDURONGHEYANJIU——JIYUXINSHIDAIHEXINGONGYEGEMINGDESHIJIAO”(XIANGMUPIZHUNHAO:18VSJ054);2016NIANGUOJIASHEKEJIJINZHONGDIANXIANGMU“‘HULIANWANG+’BEIJINGXIADEZHONGGUOZHIZAOYEZHUANXINGSHENGJIYANJIU”(PIZHUNHAO:16AJY011)。

                         
                         

                        一、引言

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载GUOMINJINGJIJIEGOUCONGYIGONGYEWEIZHUXIANGYIFUWUYEWEIZHUZHUANBIANSHIJINGJIFAZHANDEYIBANGUILV,ZAIZHEIGEZHUANBIANGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHIZAOYEBENSHENYECHENGXIANFUWUHUADEQUSHI,JIYUELAIYUEDUODEZHIZAOQIYETIGONGGENGDUODEFUWUXINGZHIDEHUODONG,CONGZHUYAOJIAGONGZHIZAOHEXIAOSHOUCHANPINZHUANXIANGTONGGUOTIGONGCHANPINYUFUWUDEZUHECANYUSHICHANGJINGZHENG。DUIYUYIJINGSHIXIANGONGYEHUADEFADAGUOJIA,ZHIZAOYEFUWUHUADETEZHENGFEICHANGTUCHU,PUBIANCUNZAI“LIANGGE70%”DEXIANXIANG,JIFUWUYECHANZHIZHANGUONEISHENGCHANZONGZHIDE70%,ZHIZAOFUWUYECHANZHIZHANZHENGGEFUWUYECHANZHIDE70%[1]。MUQIANWOGUOYIJINGJINRUGONGYEHUAHOUQI,FUWUYEBIZHONGZAI2013NIANCHAOGUODIERCHANYE,2015NIANCHAOGUO50%,2018NIANDADAO52.2%,WOGUOJIJIANGZAI2020NIANJIBENSHIXIANGONGYEHUA。ZHENDUIZHIZAOYEDEFAZHAN,XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZAI2015NIANZHONGYANGJINGJIGONGZUOHUIYISHANGDEJIANGHUAZHONGZHICHU“ANZHAOGAODUANHUA、ZHINENGHUA、LVSEHUA、FUWUHUADEFANGXIANG,SHISHIHAO《ZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025》、‘HULIANWANG+’XINGDONGJIHUA”[2]。JINNIANLAI,YIYUNJISUAN、DASHUJU、WULIANWANG、YIDONGHULIANWANG、RENGONGZHINENGDENGXINYIDAIXINXIJISHUWEIDAIBIAODEXINYILUNKEJIGEMINGHECHANYEBIANGEZAIQUANQIUFANWEINEIXINGQI,JINYIBUWEIZHIZAOYEFUNENG,SHIZHIZAOQIYEKEYIJIYUDASHUJUFENXIHERENGONGZHINENGSUANFAYOUHUAWEIYONGHUTIGONGGENGDUOGEXINGHUADINGZHIDEFUWU。

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载FUWUXINGZHIZAOSHIYIGEJUYOUMINGXIANZHONGGUOTESEDEGAINIAN,GUOWAIXUEZHEDADUOSHIYONGFUWUHUA(servitization)、CHANPINFUWUXITONG(product service system,PSS)DENGGAINIANMIAOSHUZHIZAOQIYEDEFUWUHUAZHUANXING、YUELAIYUEDUODIKAIZHANFUWUHUODONGDEXIANXIANG。VandermerweHERadaRENWEIFUWUHUASHI“ZHIZAOQIYEYOUJINJINTIGONGWUPIN(HUOBAOKUOFUJIAFUWU)XIANGTIGONGWUPINJIAFUWUGOUCHENGDE‘CHANPIN-FUWUBAO’ZHUANBIANDEGUOCHENG”,WANZHENGDE“CHANPIN-FUWUBAO”BAOKUOWUPIN、FUWU、ZHICHI、ZIWOFUWUHEZHISHIDENG,QIZHONGFUWUSHIZHUYAONEIRONGHEJIAZHIZENGZHIDEZHUYAOLAIYUAN[3]。GoedkoopDENGTICHU“CHANPINFUWUXITONG”DEGAINIAN,RENWEICHANPINFUWUXITONGSHIYIGEBAOHANCHANPIN、FUWU、WANGLUO、ZHICHISHESHIDEXITONG[4]。FUWUXINGZHIZAODEGAINIANYOUSUNLINYANDENGXUEZHEZAIGUONEIZUIZAOTICHU,TAMENRENWEI“FUWUXINGZHIZAOSHIWEILESHIXIANZHIZAOJIAZHILIANZHONGGELIYIXIANGGUANZHEDEJIAZHIZENGZHI,TONGGUOCHANPINHEFUWUDERONGHE、KEHUQUANCHENGCANYU、QIYEXIANGHUTIGONGSHENGCHANXINGFUWUHEFUWUXINGSHENGCHAN,SHIXIANFENSANHUAZHIZAOZIYUANDEZHENGHEHEGEZIHEXINJINGZHENGLIDEGAODUXIETONG,DADAOGAOXIAOCHUANGXINDEYIZHONGZHIZAOMOSHI”[5]。YUGUOWAIXUEZHEDUOSHIYONGFUWUHUA、CHANPINFUWUXITONGBUTONG,ZAIWOGUODEZHENGCETIXIZHONG“FUWUXINGZHIZAO”DEGAINIANGENGWEICHANGJIAN,BINGYOUCIYINGXIANGDAOGUONEIXUESHUYANJIUDESHUYUSHIYONG。2016NIAN7YUEFABUDE《FAZHANFUWUXINGZHIZAOZHUANXIANGXINGDONGZHINAN》SHIWOGUOFUWUXINGZHIZAOFAZHANDETONGLINGXINGWENJIAN,GAIZHINANMEIYOUJIFUWUXINGZHIZAOXIAYIGEMINGQUEDEDINGYI,ZHIZUOCHULEDINGXINGDEMIAOSHU:“ZHIZAOYEQIYETONGGUOCHUANGXINYOUHUASHENGCHANZUZHIXINGSHI、YUNYINGGUANLIFANGSHIHESHANGYEFAZHANMOSHI,BUDUANZENGJIAFUWUYAOSUZAITOURUHECHANCHUZHONGDEBIZHONG,CONGYIJIAGONGZUZHUANGWEIZHUXIANG‘ZHIZAO+FUWU’ZHUANXING,CONGDANCHUNCHUSHOUCHANPINXIANGCHUSHOU‘CHANPIN+FUWU’ZHUANBIAN。”SUIRANBIAOSHUBUTONG,DANFUWUXINGZHIZAOSUOZHINEIRONGYUFUWUHUA、CHANPINFUWUXITONGBINGWUBENZHIQUBIE。2010NIANWOGUOGONGYEHEZHIZAOYEZENGJIAZHICHAOGUOMEIGUOCHENGWEISHIJIEDIYI,DANWOGUODERENJUNSHUIPINGRENGRANJIAODI,DAYUEDAO2020NIANCAINENGJIBENSHIXIANGONGYEHUA,QUANMIANSHIXIANGONGYEHUAYAOHUAFEIGENGZHANGDESHIJIAN。YUCITONGSHI,FADAGUOJIAZAIGUOJIJINRONGWEIJIHOUKAISHIZHONGSHIZHIZAOYEDEFAZHAN,DEGUOZAIJINQIFABUDE《GUOJIAGONGYEZHANLVE2030》CAOANZHONGTICHUDAO2030NIANJIANGDEGUOZHIZAOYEZHANGDPBIZHONGYOUMUQIANDE23.4%TIGAODAO25%,ZAIOUMENGZHEIYIBILICONG16.5%TIGAODAO20%,ERJINNIANLAIWOGUOJINGJIQUECHUXIAN“TUOSHIXIANGXU”DEMIAOTOU。ZAIWOGUODEZHENGCEWENJIANZHONGSHIYONG“FUWUXINGZHIZAO”ERBUSHI“FUWUHUA”,KEYIBIMIAN“FUWUYESHIWEILAIDEFAZHANFANGXIANG”、“ZHIZAOYEBUZAIZHONGYAO”DENGWUJIE。JIYUZHEIYIYINSU,BENWENZHUYAOSHIYONG“FUWUXINGZHIZAO”,ZAIMIAOSHUZHIZAOQIYECONGCHANPINZHIZAOXIANGFUWUXINGZHIZAOZHUANXINGSHI,YESHIYONGFUWUHUAZHEIYIGAINIAN。

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载FUWUXINGZHIZAOHUOFUWUHUADETICHUYIJINGYOU30NIANDELISHI,GUOJISHANGQIYEDESHIJIANKEYIZHUISUDAOGENGZAODESHIQI,DANZAIWOGUOHAISHIYIGEXIANGDUIJIAOXINDESHIWU。SUIRANGUONEIWAIXUESHUJIEHEZHENGFUWENJIANZHONGDUIFUWUXINGZHIZAOJIXIANGGUANGAINIANJICHULEJIEDINGHUOMIAOSHU,DANZHEIXIEGAINIANRENGCUNZAIBUQINGCHUDEDIFANG,ZHENGFUZHUGUANBUMEN、XUESHUJIEHEQIYEYECUNZAIBUTONGRENSHI,CONGERZAOCHENGZAISHIJIZHENGCEZHIDING、SHISHIHEQIYESHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONGRONGYICHANSHENGDUIFUWUXINGZHIZAODEWUDU、WUYONG,TEBIESHICHUXIANBAFUWUXINGZHIZAOKUODAHUADEQINGXIANG。ZHENGQUELIJIEFUWUXINGZHIZAO,GUANJIANSHILIQINGFUWUYUZHIZAODEGUANXIJIQIBIANJIE。DUIYUFUWUXINGZHIZAODESHISHIZHUTI,YINGGAISHIZHIZAOQIYEHUOZHIZAOQIYEJITUANXIANGDUIBIJIAORONGYIDACHENGGONGSHI,DANSHIDUIFUWUFANWEIDEJIEDINGQUEDAXIANGJINGTING。BIRU,YIZHONGGUANDIANRENWEI,ZHIYAOSHIZHIZAOQIYEKAIZHANDEFUWUHUODONGDOUKEYICHENGZHIWEIFUWUXINGZHIZAO;LINGYIZHONGGUANDIANRENWEI,ZHIYAOSHIYUZHIZAOHUOSHIWUCHANPINYOUGUANDEFUWUHUODONGJIUSHUYUFUWUXINGZHIZAO。ZHEIXIERENSHIDOUCUNZAIZHEYIDINGCHENGDUDEPIANMIANXING。

                         

                        二、服务型制造的内涵

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载BENWENJIANGCONGYANGEDEYUESHUTIAOJIANCHUFA,JIEDINGFUWUXINGZHIZAODENEIHAN,RANHOUZHUBUFANGSONGYUESHUTIAOJIAN,CONGERSHIXIANDUIFUWUXINGZHIZAOGENGWEIQUANMIANDERENSHI。

                        (一)服务型制造的内涵

                         

                        我们可以借助Baines和Lightfoot对制造企业提供服务活动3个层次的划分来认识服务型制造[6](见图1)。第一类是基础服务,聚焦于产品的提供,是与制造企业的生产制造能力直接有关的服务。这类服务是产品发挥基本功能、为企业用户创造价值或为个人用户带来效用的基础。第二类是中级服务,聚焦于产品状态的保持,是与制造企业对产品的运行或使用状况的深刻理解有关的服务。通过向用户提供中级服务,可以使产品保持在良好的或理想的状态。第三类是高级服务,聚焦于产品性能的展现,它是与制造企业对产品的性能和潜在价值深刻理解有关的服务。 

                        图1 制造商提供的服务活动类型 

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载YOUYUZHIZAOQIYEZHIJIESHENDUCANYUCHANPINDEKAIFASHEJI、SHENGCHANGONGYIDEZHIDING、GONGYINGLIANZUZHI、CHANPINDEJIAGONGZHIZAO,YINCIBIYONGHUHUOQITADISANFANGQIYEGENGLEJIERUHETONGGUOZENGJIAYANSHENFUWU,SHICHANPINZUIDAHUADIFAHUIZUOYONG,WEIYONGHUDAILAIJINKENENGDADEJIAZHI。CONGJICHUFUWUDAOGAOJIFUWU,ZHIZAOQIYECONGJIANDANDITIGONGCHANPINZHUANXIANGCHONGFENFAHUIZIJIDENENGLI,CONGTIGONGCHANPINDEJIANDANFUWUZHUANXIANGWEIKEHUTIGONGJIAZHIZENGZHIDEFUZAFUWU。ZAIZHEIGEGUOCHENGZHONG,YOUYUXINDEJIAZHIBEICHUANGZAOCHULAI,WULUNSHIZHIZAOQIYEHAISHIQICHANPINDEYONGHUDOUNENGCONGZHONGHUOLI,SHIXIANSHUANGYING。

                         

                        CONGBainesHELightfootDUIYUZHIZAOQIYENEIBUDEFUWUHUODONGDELEIXINGHUAFEN,KEYIGAIKUOCHUFUWUXINGZHIZAODE4GEHEXINYAOJIAN:DIYI,ZHIZAOQIYESHIFUWUXINGZHIZAODEZHUTI,ERBUSHIFUWUXINGYEDENGQITAXINGYEDEQIYE。ZHIZAOYESHIDUINONGFUCHANPIN、CAIJUEPINJIAGONGHEZAIJIAGONGDEXINGYE。DIER,ZHIZAOQIYETIGONGFUWUDEDUIXIANGSHIYONGHU,ERBUSHITADEGONGYINGSHANG、FUWUSHANG。DISAN,ZHIZAOQIYESUOTIGONGDESHIGAOFUJIAZHIDEZENGZHIFUWU,ERBUSHIJIANDANDE、JICHUXINGDEFUWU(BainesHELightfootSUOWEIDEJICHUFUWUHEZHONGJIFUWU)。DISI,ZHIZAOQIYESUOKAIZHANDEZENGZHIFUWUSHIYIFUYUGAIQIYEZHIZAODECHANPINJICHUZHISHANGDE。JIYUDUIFUWUXINGZHIZAO4GEHEXINYAOJIANDERENSHI,KEYIGOUJIANFUWUXINGZHIZAODEGOUCHENGDENGSHI:FUWUXINGZHIZAO=ZHIZAOQIYE+MIANXIANGYONGHU+JIYU(BENQIYEZHIZAODE)CHANPIN+ZENGZHIFUWU。ZHEI4GEYAOJIANSHIFUWUXINGZHIZAOCHENGLIDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN,RUGUOZHEI4GEYAOJIANBUNENGTONGSHIMANZU,JIUBUSHIFUWUXINGZHIZAO。

                        (二)服务型制造的外延

                         

                        1.服务型制造的核心层与扩展层

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载FUWUXINGZHIZAO4GEHEXINYAOJIANDEQIAN3GEJIBENMEIYOUTAIDAZHENGYI,DANXUYAOSHUOMINGDESHI,ZHIZAOQIYESHIYIGEXIANGDUIGUANGYIDEGAINIAN。YOUYUZHIZAOYEYUFUWUYESHUIFUBUTONG、YAOSUJIAGEBUTONG、CHANYEZHUNRUHEZHICHIZHENGCEBUTONG,ZONGHEQUANHENGZHEIXIEYINSUYIJIZHUANYEHUAJINGYINGDELIBI,YIJIAZHIZAOQIYEKENENGHUIXUANZEJIANGTIGONGJIYUZIJIACHANPINDEZENGZHIFUWUDEYEWUFENCHAICHUQU,YOUDULIDE、ZHUANYEHUAFUWUGONGSILAIYUNYING,YINCIZHEILIDEZHIZAOQIYESHIJISHANGSHIZHIYIZHIZAOWEIZHUYEDEQIYEJITUAN。FUWUSUOFUZHEDEZAITISUIRANBUSHIGAIZHUANYEHUAFUWUGONGSIDE,DANSHIGAIGONGSILISHUDEZHIZAOYEJITUANSUOSHENGCHANDE。DUIDI4GEYAOJIAN——ZENGZHIFUWUDELIJIECUNZAIJIAODADEZHENGYI。ZENGZHIFUWUSHIWEIKEHUTIGONGCHAOCHUCHANGGUIFUWUFANWEIDEFUWUHUONENGGOUWEIYONGHUDAILAIJIAZHIZENGZHI、WEIQIYEDAILAIEWAISHOUYIDEFUWU,DANCHANGGUI、ZENGZHIHUOEWAISHOUYIDEBIANJIEZAINALI?DUIZENGZHIFUWUBIANJIEDERENSHIBUTONG,DUIFUWUXINGZHIZAODELIJIERENGRANHUICHANSHENGHENDACHAYI。

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载ZHIZAOQIYEXIANGYONGHUTIGONGDEJIYUZIJIACHANPINDEZENGZHIFUWUKEYIQUFENWEILIANGLEI。DIYILEIRUBainesHELightfootDUIGAOJIFUWUDECHANSHI,ZHEILEIZENGZHIFUWUSHIJIANLIZAIZHIZAOQIYEGUANYUCHANPINKAIFASHEJI、SHENGCHANZUZHI、JIAGONGZHIZAODENGNENGLIJICHUZHISHANGDEFUWU。BIRU,ZHIZAOQIYEDUICHANPINDEJIAGOUYOUZHESHENRULIJIE,ZHANGWOCHANPINKAIFASHEJIDEZHISHIHENENGLI,LEJIESHENGCHANCHANPINDEYUANCAILIAO、LINGBUJIANDEXINGNENGHEZHUYAOGONGYINGLAIYUAN、SHENGCHANXIANSHANGGEGEZHUANGBEIDEZUIYOUGONGZUOCANSHU,YINCIKEYIGENJUZHEIXIENENGLIXIANGYONGHUTIGONGCHUANGXINSHEJI、GEXINGHUADINGZHI、ZAIXIANJIANCE、ZONGJICHENGZONGCHENGBAO、QUANSHENGMINGZHOUQIGUANLIDENGFUWU,SHICHANPINZUIDAXIANDUFAHUISHIYONGJIAZHINAIZHIZENGJIAXINDEJIAZHI。DUIYUDIYILEIFUWU,KEYICHENGZHIWEIFUWUXINGZHIZAODEHEXINCENG。DIERLEISHIWEILEHEXINCENGZENGZHIFUWUDEKAIZHANSUOXUYAOTIGONGDEFUWU。BIRU,ZHIZAOQIYEWEIKEHUTIGONGQUANSHENGMINGZHOUQIGUANLISHI,BAYICIXINGDECHANPINXIAOSHOUSHOURUZHUANBIANWEIZHANGQIDEFUWUSHOURU,HUIDUIQIYEDEXIANJINLIUCHANSHENGYANZHONGYINGXIANG,YAOQIUYOURONGZIFUWUZHICHIQUANSHENGMINGZHOUQIGUANLIHUODONGDEKAIZHAN。ZHIZAOQIYEJIKEYICONGYINXING、XINTUOGONGSIDENGJINRONGGONGSIHUODEJINRONGFUWU,YEKEYIXUANZEZIJIZUORONGZIYEWU。ZAIHOUYIZHONGFANGSHIXIA,SUIRANYESHIZHIZAOQIYEXIANGYONGHUTIGONGZENGZHIFUWU,YEYUQIYEZIJIZHIZAODECHANPINYOUGUAN,DANSHIZENGZHIFUWUBINGBUYILAIYUZHIZAOQIYEYONGYOUDEGUANYUCHANPINZHIZAODENENGLI。DUIYUZHEIYILEIFUWU,KEYICHENGZHIWEIFUWUXINGZHIZAODEKUOZHANCENG。

                         

                        2.狭义的服务型制造与广义的服务型制造

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载JINGJIFAZHANDEGUOCHENGJIUSHISHICHANGRONGLIANGBUDUANKUODA、JISHUSHUIPINGBUDUANTISHENG、CHANPINFUZADUBUDUANTIGAO、SHICHANGZHUTIBUDUANZENGDUO,CONGERFENGONGBUDUANXIHUADEGUOCHENG。ZHIZAOQIYEDEFUWUHUAZHUANXINGJIUSHISHEHUIFENGONGXIHUADEBIAOXIAN。JINGUANFUWUXINGZHIZAOSHIZHIZAOQIYEPINGJIEZISHENZAIZHIZAOFANGMIANDENENGLISUOKAIZHANDEFUWUHUODONG,RUHEZHIZAOCHANPINDEZHISHISHIQIXIANGDUIYUQITAQIYETIGONGFUWUDEJINGZHENGYOUSHI,DANSHISUIZHEYUGAILEICHANPINXIANGGUANDEFUWUSHICHANGGUIMODEKUODA,JIYUCHANPINDEZENGZHIFUWUBINGBUYIDINGBIRANYOUGAICHANPINDESHENGCHANQIYETIGONG。DIYI,GAIZHIZAOQIYEDEFUWUHUODONGKEYIBOLICHENGWEIDULIDEQIYE,SUIRANZAIFAZHANCHUQIGAIFUWUQIYEYUZHIZAOQIYEYOUJIAOQIANGDEGUQUANLIANXI,DANSUIZHESHIJIANDELIUSHI,GUQUANLIANXIKENENGHUIDANHUA;DIER,GAILEICHANPINJUDADESHICHANGGUIMOHUOFAZHANQIANJINGHUIXIYINZHUANYEHUADEFUWUQIYEJINRU,ZHEIXIEXINJINRUZHEKENENGLAIZIXINGYEZHIWAI,YEKENENGSHIGAIQIYECONGSHIFUWUXINGZHIZAODEYUANGONGLIZHICHUANGYE。SUIRANXINJINRUQIYEZAICHUQIKENENGZAIGUANYUGAICHANPINDEZHUANYEZHISHISHANGXIANGDUIZHIZAOQIYEBUJUYOUYOUSHI,DANSHIZAIFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGHUIBUDUANJILEIJINGYAN,JINXINGTESEHUACHUANGXIN,CONGERSUOXIAOCHAJUBINGXINGCHENGZIJIDECHAYIHUAYOUSHI。DISAN,YUZHIZAOQIYEZHIJIYUZIJIACHANPIN、XIANGZIJIACHANPINYONGHUTIGONGFUWUBUTONG,ZHUANYEHUADEFUWUGONGSIKEYIWEIGENGGUANGFANDEKEHU、GENGFENGFUDECHANPINTIGONGFUWU,YINCIGENGJUYOUGUIMOJINGJI,BINGZAIBOCAIZHONGJIAZHIZHANGDEJICHUSHANGXINGCHENGZIJIDEDUTEYOUSHI。DISI,DUIYUYIXIEYIJINGCUNZAIDECHANPIN,KENENGHUIYOUZHUANYEHUADEFUWUQIYEZUIXIANFAXIANSHICHANGJIHUI,KAISHITIGONGJIYUGAICHANPINDEZENGZHIFUWU。LIRU,ZAIWOGUOFAZHANRUHUORUTUDEGONGXIANGDANCHE,QICHANPINZAITIZIXINGCHEYIJINGJUYOUSHANGBAINIANDELISHI,DANSHIGONGXIANGDANCHEHUOJIYUHULIANWANGDEFENSHIZULINYONGCHEFUWUMOSHIQUESHIYOUCHUCHUANGGONGSIERBUSHIYOUZIXINGCHEZHIZAOQIYELVXIANTICHUDE。HENDUOSHIHOU,HAIHUIYOUSHENGCHANQIYEJIYUBENQIYEZHIZAODECHANPINTIGONGZENGZHIFUWUYUZHUANYEHUAFUWUGONGSIJIYUTONGYILEIBIEDECHANPINTIGONGZENGZHIFUWUBINGCUNDEXIANXIANG。RUZAIGONGXIANGQICHELINGYU,JIYOUQICHEZHIZAOQIYEDAIMULEJITUANDECar2Go、BAOMAJITUANDEDrive-NowGONGXIANGQICHEFUWU,YEYOUSHULIANGGENGDUODEQICHEFENSHIZULINPINGTAIGONGSI,ZAIGUONEIYOUSHOUQIJITUANDEGoFun、TOGODENG,ZHEIXIEGONGXIANGCHUXINGPINGTAIZIJIBINGBUSHENGCHANQICHE,DANSHIYUDAIMULE、BAOMADENGQICHECHANGJIAYIYANGTIGONGGONGXIANGQICHEFUWU。

                         

                        YINCI,CONGZHENGGEGUOMINJINGJIDEHONGGUANSHIJIAOKAN,JIYUCHANPINZENGZHIFUWUDEFAZHAN——WULUNSHIZHIZAOQIYEZAIBENQIYEZHIZAODECHANPINSHANGKAIFAGENGDUODEGAOJIFUWU,HAISHIZHUANYEHUADEFUWUQIYEJIYUCHANPINTIGONGGAOJIFUWU,YOUZHIZAOHUODONGHUOCHANPINYANSHENGCHUDEFUWUYEWUDEZONGLIANGDOUHUIZENGJIA,ZHENGGEJINGJIHUICHENGXIANCHUFUWUHUADEQUSHI。WEILEQUBIEQIJIAN,KEYIBAZHIZAOQIYEXIANGYONGHUTIGONGDEJIYUZIJIACHANPINDEZENGZHIFUWUCHENGZHIWEIXIAYIDEHUOWEIGUANDEFUWUXINGZHIZAO,BAZHENGGEJINGJIXITONGZHONGJIYUCHANPINDEZENGZHIFUWUDEFAZHANCHENGZHIWEIGUANGYIDEHUOHONGGUANDEFUWUXINGZHIZAO。DANGQIAN,WOGUOZHIZAOYEMIANLINZHEXUDUOSHENCENGCIDEMAODUNHEWENTI,ZHUANXINGSHENGJIYALIJUDA,GAOZHILIANGFAZHANHEJIANSHEZHIZAOQIANGGUORENWUJIANJU,FUWUXINGZHIZAOYOUWANGCHENGWEIJIEJUEZHEIXIEMAODUNHEWENTIDEZHONGYAOTUJING,CONGXIAYIHUOWEIGUANDEJIAODULIJIEFUWUXINGZHIZAOYIYIZHONGDA。RUWUTEBIESHUOMING,BENWENSUOZHIFUWUXINGZHIZAOJUNWEIXIAYIHUOWEIGUANYIYISHANGDEFUWUXINGZHIZAO。

                        (三)服务型制造的普遍性与多样性

                         

                        FUWUXINGZHIZAOZHISUOYIZHONGYAO,SHIYINWEITABUJINSHISHAOSHUXINGYEHUOSHAOSHUYOUXIUQIYEDEXUANZE,ERQIEJUYOUPUBIANXING、DUOYANGXING,NENGGOUWEIZHIZAOYEKAITUOXINDEFAZHANKONGJIAN,TISHENGZHIZAOYEDEFAZHANZHILIANG。

                         

                        1.普遍性

                         

                        SUIRANFUWUXINGZHIZAOZAIWOGUOSHIYIGEXIANGDUIJIAOXINDEGAINIAN,DANSHIQUEJUYOUXIANZHUDEPUBIANYIYI。WULUNSHIJISHUMIJIXINGHUOZIBENMIJIXINGXINGYEHAISHILAODONGMIJIXINGXINGYE,WULUNSHIXINGYELINGXIANDEDAQIYEHAISHIZHONGXIAOQIYE,DOUJUYOUKAIZHANFUWUXINGZHIZAODEBIYAOXINGHEKENENGXING。KAIZHANFUWUXINGZHIZAOBUSHIJIANDANDIXIANGYINGGUOJIADEHAOZHAOHUOGANSHIMAO,ERSHINENGGOUZHENZHENGDIWEIQIYECHUANGZAOEWAIJIAZHI,ZENGJIAXIAOSHOUSHOURU,JIAQIANGSHICHANGJINGZHENGLI,TIGAOYONGHUMANYIDU。

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载DUIYUZHIZAOCHANPINDEYONGHULAISHUO,TAMENZHENZHENGXUYAODEBUSHICHANPINBENSHEN,ERSHICHANPINSUONENGTIGONGDEGONGNENG,JIJIYONGHUDAILAIDESHIYONGJIAZHIHUOXIAOYONG。ZHUMINGYINGXIAODASHIXIAODUO·LAIWEITEZAIQI1969NIANDEZHUZUOZHONGYINYONGYIWEIGONGJUXIAOSHOURENYUANLeo McGivenaDEHUA:“QUNIANXIAOSHOULEYIBAIWANGE1/4YINGCUNZUANTOU——BUSHIYINWEIRENMENXUYAO1/4YINGCUNDEZUANTOU,ERSHIYINWEITAMENXUYAO1/4YINGCUNDEKONG”。[7]ZHEIJUHUADEJINGJIANBAN“RENMENBUSHIXUYAO1/4YINGCUNDEZUANTOU,ERSHIXUYAO1/4YINGCUNDEKONG”CHENGWEIYINGXIAOLINGYUZUIZHUMINGDEYINYUZHIYI。TONGYANG,RENMENBUSHIXUYAODIANSHIERSHIDIANSHISHANGBOFANGDESHIPINJIEMU,BUSHIXUYAOXIYIJIERSHIXUYAOQINGSONGDIRANGYIFUJIEJING,BUSHIXUYAOJIQIERSHIXUYAOHUODEGEZHONGCHANPIN,BUSHIXUYAOFUYINJIERSHIXUYAOWENDANGGUANLIFUWU,BUSHIXUYAOJISUANJIERSHIXUYAOSUANLI,RUCIDENGDENG。GUANLIDASHIBIDE·DELUKEZHICHU,“GUKESUOGOUMAIBINGRENWEIYOUJIAZHIDEJUEBUSHIYIJIANCHANPIN,ERSHIZHONGSHIQIXIAOYONG,JIYIJIANCHANPINHUOYIXIANGFUWUDUITASUOQIDEZUOYONG”[8]。LAIWEITEYESHUO,“RENMENHUAQIANJIBUSHIMAICHANPINYEBUSHIMAIFUWU,ERSHIWEILEHUODEGOUMAIXINGWEIFUYUTAMENDEJIAZHIMANZU”。YINCI,ZHIZAOQIYEXIANGYONGHUTIGONGCHANPINHAISHIXIANGTAMENTIGONGNENGSHIXIANTONGDENGXIAOYONGDEFUWUSHIWUCHABIEDE,JIKEYIANZHAOCHUANTONGDEZUOFAXIANGYONGHUXIAOSHOUCHANPIN,YOUYONGHUQINZISHIYONGCHANPINCONGERHUODEYUNHANZAICHANPINZHONGDESHIYONGJIAZHI;YEKEYIZHIJIEXIANGYONGHUTIGONGNENGGOUWEITAMENDAILAIXIANGTONGXIAOYINGDEFUWU。CHUANTONGXINGYEDEQIYETONGYANGKEYIJIYUBENQIYEDECHANPINKAIFAEWAIDEZENGZHIFUWU,ZENGJIAYONGHUDESHIYONGJIAZHI。LIRU,DIANSHIJIQIYETONGGUOHULIANWANGTIGONGYINGSHIJIEMUDIANBO,QICHEGONGSIKAIZHANZULINHUOYUNSHU,FUYINJIGONGSICONGSHIWENDANGGUANLI,JISUANJIGONGSITONGGUOYUNJISUANCHUSHOUSUANLI。

                         

                        2.多样性

                         

                        服务型制造是制造企业以制造能力为基础,向用户提供的基于自家产品的增值服务。制造企业的价值创造过程包括产品的研发设计、原材料和零部件采购、局部装配和总装、营销、零售、售后服务和产品的回收处理,以及相关辅助性活动,构成制造企业的价值链(见图2)。在价值链的每一个环节,都有有关产品的专门知识,都可能为用户创造额外的价值。因此,具体的服务型制造模式是多种多样的,它可以是制造企业价值链各个环节与用户的互动,由此衍生出额外的高级服务活动,也可以是多个环节的组合与用户的互动,从而形成更为复杂的价值增值服务。从这个角度看,《发展服务型制造专项行动指南》所提出的10种服务型制造模式,仅是对目前企业既有服务型制造实践的概括,在未来制造企业服务化转型的实践中,还会有更多的服务型制造模式被创造出来。 

                        TU2 ZHIZAOYEJIAZHILIANYUFUWUXINGZHIZAOMOSHISHIYITU

                         

                         

                        三、服务型制造发展的动因

                         

                        QIUZHENZHENGJINRUDAOGEXINGHUAJIEDUAN,TAMENBUZAIMANZUYUXIAOFEITIGONGFUWUXINGZHIZAODECHANSHENGYUFAZHANJISHOUDAOCHANPINFUZADUTIGAO、KEHUGEXINGHUAXUQIUZENGZHANG、XINYIDAIXINXIJISHUFAZHANDETUIDONG,YESHIQIYEXUNQIUCHAYIHUAJINGZHENGYOUSHI,KAITUOXINDESHICHANGKONGJIANHELIRUNLAIYUANDEZHONGYAOZHANLVEXUANZE。

                         

                        (一)产品复杂性的增加扩大服务型制造需求

                         

                        JINGJIFAZHANDEGUOCHENGJIUSHISHEHUIFENGONGBUDUANSHENHUA、YUHUISHENGCHANCHENGDUBUDUANTIGAO、CHANPINFUZACHENGDUBUDUANZENGJIADEGUOCHENG。DANGQIANSHIDAIDEGONGYECHANPIN,SHAOZESHUSHIGELINGBUJIAN,DUOZESHUBAIWANLINGBUJIAN,MEIYIZHONGZHONGJIANCHANPINHEZUIZHONGCHANPINZHENGTIDESHEJI、ZHIZAODOUXUYAOZHUANMENDEZHISHIHEJINENG。SUIRANZHIZAOQIYEZAISHEJIZHICHUJIUJINLIANGSHICHANPINYIYONG,DANCHANPINFUZAXINGDEZENGJIARENGRANSHIYONGHUYUELAIYUENANYIZHANGWOCHANPINDECAOZUO,GENGNANYILEJIECHANPINNEIBUDEJIEGOU、CANSHU,CONGERWUFAHENHAODIWANCHENGJINGMISHEBEIDEANZHUANGDIAOSHI、WEIHUWEIXIUDENGGONGZUO。SHENZHIYUZHIZAOQIYEXIANGBI,YONGHUYOUYUBUJUBEI“ZHIDAOCHANPINRUHESHEJI、ZHIZAODEZHISHI”,ZAIBAOCHICHANPINDEGAOXIAOYUNZHUANSHANGYECUNZAICHAJU。CIWAI,YIXIECHANPINYONGHUYOUYUCHANPINYONGLIANGSHAO,BAOCHIWANZHENGDECHANPINCAOZUO、JIANXIUTUANDUIYEBUJUYOUGUIMOJINGJIXING。YINCI,XUDUOGONGYECHANPINDEYONGHUWEILEZHUANZHUYUZISHENDEHEXINNENGLI、JIANGDICHENGBENHUOSHICHANPINGENGHAODIFAHUIXIAONENG,YUELAIYUEYUANYIBAZHEIXIEFUWUXINGZHIDEGONGZUOWAIBAOCHUQU,XIWANGYUANCAILIAO、JIAGONGSHEBEIDENGSHENGCHANZILIAOZAITIGONGCHANPINZHIWAI,TIGONGGENGDUODEGAOFUJIAZHIFUWU。

                         

                        (二)消费升级使个性化的服务需求不断增长

                         

                        ZAIJINGJIFAZHANSHUIPINGDI、JUMINSHOURUYOUXIANDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHUIQIUDIJIAGE、XINGJIABISHISHEHUIXIAOFEIDEZHULIU,YUZHIXIANGSHIYINGDESHIDAGUIMOSHENGCHANFANGSHI,ZHIZAOQIYEDAGUIMODISHENGCHANBIAOZHUNHUACHANPIN,CONGERSHICHANPINJIAGONGZHIZAOCHENGBENJINKENENGDIJIANGDI。SUIZHEJINGJIFAZHANSHUIPINGDETIGAOHEKEZHIPEISHOURUKUAISUZENGJIA,XIAOFEIZHEYIJINGBUZAIMANZUCHIDEBAO、CHUANDENUAN,ERSHIXIWANGNENGGOUXIAOFEIYIQIANWULIGOUMAIDECHAYIHUASHANGPIN,SHICHANGYEYINCIBEIFENGEWEIHENXIAODEXIFENSHICHANG,TUIDONGQIYEKAISHICONG“DAGUIMOSHENGCHAN”XIANG“DAGUIMODINGZHI”ZHUANBIAN[9]。DANSHI“DAGUIMODINGZHI”SHIDAI,XIAOFEIZHESUOXUYAODESHIDICHENGBEN、GAOZHILIANGQIEDADAOTAMENXUQIUDECHANPIN,QIYEZHUYAOSHITONGGUOZENGQIANGZHIZAOGUOCHENGDEROUXINGHESHIYINGXINGLAISHIXIAN。SUIZHEJINGJIFAZHANHESHENGHUOSHUIPINGDEJINYIBUTIGAO,XIAOFEIZHEDEXUJIBENSHIYONGJIAZHIDECHANPIN,ERSHIXIWANGNENGGOUCONGCHANPINZHONGDEDAOGENGDUOTUOZHANDEJIAZHI,RUDUYIWUERDECHANPINGENGTIEHEZIJIDESHENTITIAOJIANHESHIYONGXIGUAN、XINLIDEMANZUDENG。ZAIGEXINGHUAXUQIUDETUIDONGXIA,ZHIZAOYEQIYEBUDEBUCONGJINJINJIAGONGZHIZAOHEJIAOFUCHANPINZHUANXIANGTIGONG“CHANPIN+FUWU”DEZUHEERZOUXIANG“FUWUHUA”。

                         

                        (三)新一代信息技术的发展扩展了服务空间

                         

                        ZAI“MOERDINGLV”DETUIDONGXIA,JISUANJI、RUANJIAN、HULIANWANG、TONGXINDENGJISHUDEKUAISUFAZHANTUIDONGITYINGJIANCHENGBENCHIXUXIAJIANG、XINGNENGBUDUANZENGQIANG,ZAIGONGYELINGYUYEHUODEYUELAIYUEGUANGFANDEYINGYONGKONGJIAN。DANGQIANZAIXINGYELINGXIANZHIZAOQIYEGUANGFANCAIYONGDEITXITONGYOUJISUANJIFUZHUSHEJIHEZHIZAO(CAD/CAM)、QIYEZIYUANGUANLIJIHUA(ERP)、SHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHIXINGXITONG(MES)、CHANPINQUANSHENGMINGZHOUQIGUANLI(PLM)、GONGYINGLIANGUANLIXITONG(SCM)、KEHUGUANXIGUANLIXITONG(CRM)HEBANGONGZIDONGHUAXITONG(OA),ZAICHANPINKAIFALINGYUGENGSHIYOUSHULIANGZHONGDUODEGAODUZHUANYEHUADEGONGYERUANJIAN。TEBIESHIZAIWULIANWANG、YIDONGHULIANWANG、DASHUJU、YUNJISUAN、RENGONGZHINENGDENGXINYIDAIXINXIJISHUDETUIDONGXIA,ZHIZAOYEZHENGZAIXIANGSHUZIHUA、WANGLUOHUA、ZHINENGHUADEFANGXIANGYANJIN,XINGCHENGZIYUAN、XINXI、WUPINHERENJINMILIANXIDEXINXIWULIXITONG(cyber-physical system,JIANCHENGCPS),WEILAIDEZHIZAOQIYEJIANGNENGGOUSHISHICHANSHENG、CHUANSHUHEFENXIBAOKUOWULIAO、SHEBEI、CHANPINDENGZAINEIDEGONGYEDASHUJU,JUBEIZHUANGTAIGANZHI、SHISHIFENXI、ZIZHUJUECE、JINGZHUNZHIXING、XUEXITISHENGDENENGLI。ZAICITIAOJIANXIA,ZHIZAOQIYEKEYIZHENGHELIYONGZIJI、GONGYINGSHANG、KEHUDEZIYUAN、XINXI、SHUJUDENGJINXINGFUWUMOSHIDECHUANGXIN。LIRU,TONGGUOHUODECHANPINNEIZHICHUANGANQISHISHIFAHUIDECHANPINGONGKUANGXINXI,KEYIJISHIDUIKENENGCHUXIANDEGUZHANGJINXINGYUJINGBINGTIGONGYUANCHENGJISHUZHICHI;TONGGUODUIYONGHUSHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDEHAILIANGSHUJUDEFENXI,KEYIDUIYONGHUTIGONGGEXINGHUADESHIYONGJIANYI;YITUOGAODUROUXINGDECHANPINKAIFASHEJIXITONGHEKEZHONGGOUSHENGCHANXITONG,NENGGOUDICHENGBENDIWEIYONGHUDINGZHIGEXINGHUACHANPINBINGJISHIJIAOFU。

                         

                        (四)制造企业追求成长和提高利润率的需要

                         

                        产品的模块化、企业的专业化以及市场竞争的白热化,使得最终产品在质量、功能、外形等方面的差异越来越小,同质化问题愈发突出,不但造成客户的转换成本降低,制造企业获得和维护客户的成本不断提高,而且造成产品价格不断下降,制造企业的利润率不断被摊薄。在这种情况下,客户在服务方面的差异化需求不但为制造企业提供了新的增长空间,而且通过提供增值服务,能够增加用户的黏性,提高企业的利润率。表1的调查显示,在许多行业中,服务的边际利润比产品制造高得多,在造纸机行业服务/产品的边际利润比高达3.9。用户对服务需求的增加以及附加价值向服务环节的转移,推动越来越多的制造企业进行服务化转型,由以产品为中心转向以客户为中心转变,由加工组装为主转向以“制造+服务”为主,由一次性交易产品转向长期提供服务,由以产品为价值来源转向以“产品+服务”的组合为价值来源,服务业务成为企业提升竞争力和盈利能力的重要方向。 

                        表1 2010年来自服务业务的潜在利润机会 

                         

                         

                        SHIJIEMAOYIZUZHIDESHUJUXIANSHI,FUWUZENGJIAZHIZHANFADAGUOJIAZHIZAOYECHUKOUEDE32%,ZHANFAZHANZHONGGUOJIACHUKOUEDE26%[10]。ZAISHIJIE500QIANGQIYEZHONG,56%DEQIYECONGSHIFUWUYE;ZAIFUWUHUACHENGDUZUIGAODEMEIGUO,ZHIZAOYUFUWURONGHEXINGQIYEYIZHANQIQUANBUZHIZAOQIYEZONGSHUDE58%[1]。

                         

                        (五)服务型制造的行业差异

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载ZHENGTIERYAN,CHANPINFUZAXING、JINGJIFAZHANSHUIPING(SHOURUSHUIPING)、XINXIJISHUJINBUSHITUIDONGZHIZAOQIYEFUWUHUAZHUANXINGDEZHONGYAOYINSU。YOUYUGEGEXINGYEDETEZHENGBUTONG、QIYEJIANYOUSHIGEYI,YINCIYEJIUZAOCHENGLEFUWUHUASHUIPINGZAIXINGYEJIAN、QIYEJIANDEJUDACHAYI。

                         

                        FUWUHUASHUIPINGSUIZHECHANPINFUZAXING(ZHUANYEHUAZHISHI)DEZENGJIAERTIGAO。JIXIEZHUANGBEIDENGXINGYEDECHANPINFUZACHENGDUGAO,CHANPINDEANZHUANGDIAOSHI、CAOZUO、WEIHUBAOYANGDENGXUYAODALIANGZHUANMENHUADEZHISHI,ERJICHUYUANCAILIAO、QINGGONGCHANPINDEFUZACHENGDUXIANGDUIJIAODI。YOUSHUJUXIANSHI,HELANGUANGBO、DIANSHIHETONGXINSHEBEIYEDEFUWUHUACHANCHUBILIGAODA59.68%,DANJICHUJINSHUZHIPINYE、ZHIJIANGJIZHIZHIPINYEDEFUWUYECHANCHUPINGJUNBILIFENBIEZHIYOU1.61%HE2.82%[11]。

                         

                        服务化水平随着数字化程度的提高而提高。数据是服务型制造的核心驱动力,在线监测、信息增值服务、全生命周期管理等服务型制造模式都需要以设备运营和用户数据为核心;个性化定制等服务型制造模式需要制造企业的生产线、供应链具有高度的柔性,其基础也是制造业的数字化、网络化、智能化。因此,制造过程数字化水平高和产品数字化程度高的行业,通常可以衍生出更多的增值服务。 

                         
                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载① ZHIZAOGUOCHENGDESHUZIHUASHUIPINGGAOBINGBUBIRANDENGTONGYUSHENGCHANXIANDEROUXINGHUACHENGDUGAO,RUHUAGONG、GANGTIEDENGLIUCHENGXINGXINGYEYIBANJUYOUJIAOGAODEZIDONGHUASHUIPING,DANYOUYUQIDAPILIANGSHENGCHANDETEZHENG,KAIFAZENGZHIFUWUDENANDURENGRANJIAODA。

                         

                        FUWUHUASHUIPINGSUIZHEWUZHIXIAOYINGQIANGDUXIAJIANGERTIGAO。RUQIANSUOSHU,YONGHUGOUMAI、SHIYONGCHANPINBINGBUSHIYAOHUODECHANPINBENSHEN,ERSHIYAOHUODECHANPINNENGGOUDAILAIDEXIAOYONG。BUTONGDECHANPIN,QIWUZHISHUXINGNENGGOUDAIJIYONGHUDEXIAOYINGSHIBUTONGDE。YOUXIECHANPINDEWUZHIXIAOYINGQIANGDUGAO,CHANPINXIAOYONGDEFAHUIXUYAOCHANPINBENSHENDEXIAOHAO,RUJIEJUEJIEWENTIXUYAOCHIDIAOSHIPINHEYINLIAO,TIGAOTURANGFEILIXUYAOSHIJIAHUAFEI,ZAICIJICHUSHANGYANSHENFUWUDEKONGJIANJIUXIAO;YOUXIECHANPINDEWUZHIXIAOYINGQIANGDUDI,YONGHUXIAOYONGDEMANZUBINGBUSHICONGGAICHANPINDEZHIJIEXIAOHAOHUODEDE,ERSHILAIZIYUCHANPINSHIYONGDEJIEGUO,RUQICHETIGONGRENHUOWUPINKONGJIANWEIZHIDEZHUANYI、DIANZUANDACHUDEFUHEBIAOZHUNDEKONG,ZAICIJICHUSHANGYANSHENFUWUDEKONGJIANJIUDA。

                         

                        FUWUHUASHUIPINGSUIZHECHANPINKEKUOZHANXINGZENGQIANGERTIGAO。YOUXIEWUZHICHANPINBENSHENJIUSHINENGGOUZHIJIEDAIJIYONGHUXIAOYONGDEWANZHENGCHANPIN,YOUXIECHANPINBENSHENZHINENGTIGONGJIBENDEJIAZHI,XUYAOYUHUBUPIN(JIKEYISHIYINGJIANYEKEYISHIRUANJIAN)PEIHESHIYONGCAINENGDAILAIGENGDUODEJIAZHI。DUIYUHOUYIZHONGKEKUOZHANXINGGENGQIANGDECHANPIN,JIUJUYOUGENGDADEZENGZHIFUWUKUOZHANKONGJIAN。ZHIZAOQIYEJIKEYIBANGZHUYONGHUZAIJICHUCHANPINDEJICHUSHANGDINGZHIYINGJIAN,TUOZHANXINDEGONGNENG,YEKEYIWEIYONGHUZHIJIETIGONGJIYUJIBENCHANPINDERUANJIAN,TONGGUORUANJIANMANZUYONGHUDEXUYAO。YOUYUXIANZAIDERUANJIANHUOAPPDADOUJUYOUYUNDUANHUADETEZHENG,YINCIQIYEKEYIZAIBUGAIBIANYINGJIANCHANPINDETIAOJIANXIA,TONGGUORUANJIANCANSHUSHEZHIDEBIANHUAHUORUANJIANSUOTIGONGFUWUDEBIANHUA,WEIYONGHUTIGONGCHAYIHUADEFUWU。

                         

                        四、服务型制造的重要意义

                         

                        CONGWEIGUANSHANGKAN,FAZHANFUWUXINGZHIZAOSHIZHIZAOQIYESHIYINGYONGHUGEXINGHUAHEFUWUHUAXUQIUZENGZHANG,CONGERKAITUOXINDECHENGZHANGHELIRUNKONGJIANDEXUYAO。ZAIHONGGUANHECHANYECENGMIAN,FUWUXINGZHIZAOYIRANJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。《FAZHANFUWUXINGZHIZAOZHUANXIANGXINGDONGZHINAN》ZHICHU,FAZHANFUWUXINGZHIZAO“SHIZENGQIANGCHANYEJINGZHENGLI、TUIDONGZHIZAOYEYOUDABIANQIANGDEBIRANYAOQIU”“SHISHUNYINGXINYILUNKEJIGEMINGHECHANYEBIANGEDEZHUDONGXUANZE”“SHIYOUXIAOGAISHANGONGJITIXI、SHIYINGXIAOFEIJIEGOUSHENGJIDEZHONGYAOJUCUO”。FUWUXINGZHIZAOSHICHANPIN、JISHU、YONGHUXUQIU、QIYEZHANLVEDENGNEIWAIBUYINSUGONGTONGZUOYONGDEJIEGUO,DUIYUJIEJUEXINSHIDAIWOGUOZHIZAOYEFAZHANMIANLINDETUCHUMAODUNHEWENTIJUYOUZHONGYAOZUOYONG。ZAIDANGQIANWOGUOZHIZAOYEFAZHANJIEDUANHEGUONEIGUOJIHUANJINGXIA,FAZHANFUWUXINGZHIZAODUIZHIZAOYEDEZHONGYAOYIYITIXIANZAIZHONGSUJINGZHENGYOUSHI、TUIDONGLVSEFAZHAN、TIGAOQUANYAOSUSHENGCHANLVHEYINGDUIMAOYIMOCADENGFANGMIAN。

                         

                        (一)发展服务型制造有利于重塑竞争优势

                         

                        GAIGEKAIFANGYILAI,WOGUOZHIZAOYEDEKUAISUFAZHANZHUYAODEYIYULAODONGLICHENGBENFENGFU、GONGZISHUIPINGDIDENGYAOSUCHENGBENYOUSHI,TONGGUOCANYUQUANQIUFENGONG,KUAISUFAZHANCHENGWEISHIJIEZUIZHUYAODEJIAGONGZHIZAOJIDI。DANSHISUIZHEJINGJIFAZHAN、RENKOUHONGLIXIAOSHI、FANGJIAKUAISUSHANGZHANG、HUANBAOLIDUJIADADENGFANGMIANDEYINGXIANG,BAOKUOGONGZIZAINEIDEYAOSUJIAGETIGAOHENKUAI,ZHONGGUOZHIZAOYEZHENGZAISANGSHIDICHENGBENZHEIYICHUANTONGYOUSHI。ZHONGGUOZHIZAOYEHAIMIANLINZHEFADAGUOJIAZHONGZHENZHIZAOYE、FAZHANZHONGGUOJIAZHILIYUFAZHANLAODONGMIJIXINGCHANYEGAODILIANGDUANDESHUANGZHONGJIYA。ZHONGGUOZHIZAOYEZAIXIANTIANZIYUANYAOSUYOUSHIXUERUODETONGSHI,YINENGLIWEIJICHUDEHOUTIANYOUSHIYEZHENGZAIXINGCHENG,ZHIZAOYEJINGZHENGYOUSHIZHENGCONGJIAGEYOUSHI、GUIMOYOUSHIXIANGCHUANGXINXINGZHIZAOYOUSHIZHUANBIAN。CHUANGXINXINGZHIZAOYITUOYUWANSHANDEJICHUSHESHIHECHANYEPEITAOTIXI、MOFANGCHUANGXINNENGLIHEKUAISUSHANGYEHUANENGLI[12]。FUWUXINGZHIZAOSHIZHIZAOQIYEYANFASHEJI、JIAGONGZHIZAONENGLIXIANGFUWULINGYUDEYANSHEN,JUYOUJIAOGAODEZHISHIHANLIANGHEJISHUCHUANGXINYAOQIU,NENGGOUCHENGWEIZHONGGUOZHIZAOYEXINDEJINGZHENGYOUSHIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN。SHISHISHANG,YIHONGLING、RUYIDENGWEIDAIBIAODEYIXIEFANGZHI、FUZHUANGQIYETONGGUOFUWUXINGZHIZAOYIJINGSHIXIANLEXIANGQUANQIUJIAZHILIANGAODUANDEPANSHENG,ERYIQUANZHOUWEIDAIBIAODEFUZHUANGJIJUQUTONGGUOFAZHANFUWUXINGZHIZAOCUJINLECHUANTONGLAODONGMIJIXINGCHANYEDEDIEBIAN。

                         

                        (二)发展服务型制造有利于产业绿色发展

                         

                        ZHANGQIYILAI,ZHIZAOYEDOUSHITUIDONGWOGUOJINGJIGAOSUZENGZHANGDEZHUYAOLILIANG,DANSHIYEZAOCHENGLEZIYUANNENGYUANGUODUXIAOHAO、SHENGTAIHEHUANJINGPOHUAIDENGWENTI。ZIYUAN、NENGYUANDEDALIANGXIAOHAOBUDANZAOCHENGGUONEIZIYUANHENENGYUANCAIJUEYEFAZHANDUIZIRANZIYUANDEPOHUAI,ERQIEYOUYUGUONEIZIYUANCHULIANGBUZU、PINWEIDI,HAIXUYAOCONGGUOWAIDALIANGJINKOU,LIRUWOGUOYUANYOUJINKOUYICUNDUYIJINGCHAOGUO70%,CUNZAIZHONGDADENENGYUANANQUANYINHUAN。ZHONGGONGYEBUMENRUGUOHUANBAOCUOSHIBUDAOWEIHUICHANSHENGBINGPAIFANGDALIANGDEWURANWU。YOUYUWOGUOZHONGGONGYEDEZONGTIGUIMODA——LIRUGANGTIECHANLIANGYUEZHANQUANQIUDEYIBAN,QIELUOHOUCHANNENGDALIANGCUNZAI,ZAOCHENGYOUJISHUIWURANWU(BOD)、DANYANGHUAWUDENGWURANWUPAIFANGLIANGDOUSHISHIJIEDIYI,TONGSHIYESHISHIJIEZUIDADECO2PAIFANGGUO。FUWUXINGZHIZAOYIWEIZHEZAIZHIZAOYEBUMENZHONGYOUGENGDUOFUWUHUANEIRONG,ZAITONGYANGDECHANCHU(YIZENGJIAZHIHENGLIANG)XIA,HUIXIAOHAOGENGSHAODEZIYUAN、NENGYUAN,PAIFANGGENGSHAODEWURANWUHEWENSHIQITI,GEXINGHUADINGZHIMOSHIHUISHIGONGXUGENGJIAWENHE,JIANSHAOYINWEICHANPINZHIXIAO、JIYAERZAOCHENGDELANGFEI,CONGERTUIDONGZHIZAOQIYEBENSHENDELVSEHUA。ZAIXIANJIANCE、QUANSHENGMINGZHOUQIGUANLIDENGMOSHIXIA,ZHIZAOQIYEKEYILIYONGZIJIDEZHUANYEJINENG,TIGAOSHEBEIDEYUNZHUANXIAOLVHELIYONGXIAOLV,TONGYANGHUICUJINXIAYOUYONGHUDELVSEHUA。

                         

                        (三)发展服务型制造有利于提高全要素生产率

                         

                        棋牌类游戏下载GONGYEHEZHIZAOYEZAIGUOMINJINGJIZHONGDEBIZHONGZHUBUXIAJIANG、FUWUYEZAIGUOMINJINGJIZHONGDEBIZHONGZHUBUTISHENGSHIGONGYEHUAHOUQIDEYIBANGUILV,DANSHIJINRONG、FANGDICHANDENGFUWUYEDEGUODUFAZHANHUIZAOCHENG“TUOSHIXIANGXU”WENTI,JINGJIMIANLINPAOMOHUA,QUEFAFAZHANHOUJING,ERCANYIN、ZHUSU、WULIUDENGFUWUYEBUMENDESHENGCHANLVSHUIPINGYIBANJIAODI。FUWUXINGZHIZAOBUSHI“QUZHIZAOYEHUA”ERSHITONGGUOZHIZAOYEYUFUWUYEDEGAODURONGHEZENGQIANGZHIZAOYEDEJINGZHENGLI,ZHIZAOYEFUWUHUASUOYANSHENGCHULAIDEFUWUHUODONG,YEBUSHISHUYUXUNIJINGJIDEFUWUYE,ERSHIYAOFAZHANNENGGOUJIZHENGGESHEHUICHUANGZAOZHENZHENGCAIFU、NENGGOUMANZURENMINRIYIZENGZHANGDEMEIHAOSHENGHUOXUYAODEFUWUYE。YOUYUFUWUYEDEJISHUCHUANGXINBURUZHIZAOYEHUOYUE,LAODONGSHENGCHANLVGENGNANTIGAO,YINCICHANYEJIEGOUYOUYIDIERCHANYEWEIZHUXIANGFUWUYEWEIZHUDEZHUANXINGYIBANHUILADIZHENGGEJINGJIDESHENGCHANLVZENGZHANG,FUWUYEZAIGUOMINJINGJIZHONGBIZHONGDETIGAOGENGDUODESHIYOUYUQIJIAGESHANGZHANGDEGENGKUAI。ERFUWUXINGZHIZAODEFAZHANHUITONGGUOFENGONGDESHENHUAHEZHUANYEHUAZHUBUYANSHENGCHUXINDEFUWUHUODONGSHENZHIFUWUYEBUMEN,ERZHEIYIBUFENXINZENGDEFUWUYEZHISHIHANLIANGGAO、JISHUJINBUKUAI,KEYIJIANQINGJINGJIFAZHANZHONGDE“CHENGBENBING”,TIGAOQUANYAOSUSHENGCHANLV。

                         

                        (四)发展服务型制造有利于应对贸易摩擦

                         

                        ZI2018NIAN3YUEMEIGUOJUEDINGDONGYONG301TIAOKUANDUIZHONGGUOCHUKOUSHANGPINJIAZHENGGUANSHUIYILAI,ZHONGMEIMAOYIZHANBUDUANSHENGJI。2018NIAN7YUE6RIHE8YUE23RI,MEIGUOXUANBUDUIJIAZHIFENBIEWEI340YIMEIYUANHE160YIMEIYUANDEZHONGGUOSHANGPINJIAZHENG25%DEJINKOUGUANSHUI;9YUE24RIQIDUIJIAZHI2 000YIMEIYUANDEZHONGGUOSHANGPINJIAZHENG10%GUANSHUIBINGHUIJINYIBUJIANGSHUILVTIGAODAO25%。ZHONGGUODUIMEIGUODEMAOYIEZHAJIYUZHENFENGXIANGDUIDEHUIYING,FENBIEYU7YUE6RIHE9YUE24RIDUIJIAZHI500YIMEIYUANHE600YIMEIYUANDEJINKOUSHANGPINZHENGSHOU5%、10%HE25%BUDENGDEGUANSHUI。ZHONGMEIMAOYIZHANDEYIGEZHONGYAOYOUYINJIUSHIMEIGUODUIZHONGGUOCUNZAIJUDADEMAOYINICHA。DANSHICONGZHONGGUODECHUKOUJIEGOUKEYIKANDAO,ZHONGGUOSHANGPINCHUKOUSUIRANZHANQUANQIUDEBIZHONGDADAO12.8%,JUSHIJIEDIYIWEI,DANSHIFUWUCHUKOUJINZHANQUANQIUDE4.3%,BIMEIGUODI10.1GEBAIFENDIAN。ZHONGMEIZHIJIAN,ZAIMEIGUODUIZHONGGUOCUNZAIJUDASHANGPINMAOYINICHADETONGSHIYECUNZAIZHEJUDADEFUWUMAOYISHUNCHA。JUMEIGUOFANGMIANTONGJI,2007—2017NIAN,MEIGUODUIHUAFUWUCHUKOUEYOU131.4YIMEIYUANKUODADAO576.3YIMEIYUAN,ZENGZHANGLE3.4BEI,MEIGUODUIHUAFUWUMAOYINIANDUSHUNCHAKUODA30BEIZHI402YIMEIYUAN[13]。TONGGUOFAZHANFUWUXINGZHIZAOYIJITIGAOWOGUOFUWUXINGZHIZAODEGUOJIJINGZHENGLI,KEYITONGGUOFUWUMAOYIXINGSHIGUIBIGUANSHUIDENGMAOYIBILEI,KUODAFUWUMAOYICHUKOU,JIANSHAOMAOYIMOCADEYINGXIANG;TONGSHIYEKEYITONGGUOYOUCHUKOUCHANPINZHUANXIANGCHUKOUFUWUDEXINGSHI,SUOXIAOZHONGMEIHUOWUMAOYICHAE。

                         


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